The DNA Test Procedure
|Order the kit which you will receive 2 days later (domestic shipping only). There will be no additional charges or costs.|
|Each kit is serialized to the customer at the time of purchase.|
|Read and follow the instruction sheet that comes with your kit. This is a sample (requires Adobe Acrobat).|
|Take the samples from each persons mouth using the cotton swabs provided with kit. Millions of cells are shed daily inside your mouth and these cells all contain DNA, which will be used to perform the test.|
|Place each person’s sample in a specimen envelope (one envelope per person). This is a sample.
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|Complete the « Authorization Form » which provides the laboratory with your information and where/how you want your results sent. This is a sample (requires Adobe Acrobat). Use this additional form when 2 or more children are involved.|
|Samples are returned to the lab with the provided overnight mailer (does not apply to international orders).|
|Once all the required samples have been received by the lab, the first step involves extracting the genetic material (DNA) from them. Chemical treatment purifies this DNA. After the DNA has been purified, a special mixture of chemicals is added to a very small quantity of the DNA in order to amplify (copy) eleven genes of interest. These genes are then labeled with special fluorescent tags that enable us to detect the genes with a laser. The amplification sample is only the size of a small teardrop. After amplification, the resulting DNA fragments are pushed through a clear gel that acts as a sieve and separates molecules by their size. This gel has been poured between two clear pieces of glass so that a laser beam can constantly scan across it.|
|Your results will be sent to you normally within 7 business days by the method that you requested on the authorization form.Results seldom take longer then 7 business days unless there has to be a retest (extended testing). Here is a list of the common causes of delays. 97% of all tests are completed in 7 business days or less.|
|For any genetic system, an individual must obtain one gene from his mother and one gene from his father. To analyze results in a trio case, we first compare the mother with the child and determine which genes in the child were inherited from the mother. The remaining genes must have been passed down by the child’s biological father (paternal genes). If the paternal genes match the child’s, we will calculate a paternity index and the probability of paternity will typically be 99.999%. If they don’t match, the paternity index will be 0 and the probability of paternity will be 0%. The higher the paternity index, the stronger the evidence is for paternity. See « Sample Reports. »|
|Sample ReportsHere is a sample of a inclusion report for a paternity test (requires Adobe Acrobat).
Here is a sample of an exclusion report for a paternity test (requires Adobe Acrobat).
Here is a sample of a inclusion report for a motherless paternity test (requires Adobe Acrobat).
Here is a sample of an exclusion report for a motherless paternity test (requires Adobe Acrobat).
What to Expect from your test
Starting Your Test – Your test will start your test as soon as the samples from all parties in the test have been received.
Reporting Time – The lab offers the fastest DNA paternity testing anywhere. They also offer STAT testing options that guarantee results on the following business day and in three business days, and our routine turn-around-times are generally 7 business days. These turn-around-times are based on testing with cheek swab samples only. With any biological testing, however, exceptions can occur. There are a few reasons why your test might not be completed in the typical time:
1. Sample failure – There is always a risk, though slight, of a sample not containing enough DNA for the test. This is due to collection error or the client’s mouth conditions (dry mouth, excessive tobacco usage, etc.).
2. Single exclusion – The lab routinely compare eleven (11) different DNA systems between the mother, child, and alleged father. When just one of the DNA systems we examine reveals a mismatch between the alleged father and child, we call this outcome a single exclusion. They cannot conclude paternity or non-paternity without further testing. Further testing will reveal either: 1. More exclusionary DNA systems, excluding the alleged father, or 2. More matching DNA systems, indicating that the single exclusion is a mutational event. A mutational event is a naturally occurring event and does not mean that either the father or child has any medical problem.
3. Double exclusion – The lab can normally call a test an exclusion if there are at least two exclusionary DNA systems between the alleged father and child. However, if the two exclusionary systems reveal data that are only one number apart, there is a remote possibility that a double-mutational event occurred. This is extremely rare, but since it can occur, we have to perform additional testing to give the client a conclusive result. With further testing, the same two options as for a single exclusion (described in #2, above) are possible.
4. Low Paternity Index – If all the DNA systems we examine match between the alleged father and child, usually the result indicates a 99.9% probability of paternity. Sometimes, however, the genes shared between the alleged father and child are so common that the probability of paternity doesn’t reach 99%. Further testing will likely reveal additional matches and will increase the probability to a minimum of 99%. Another cause of low paternity index is if no race is submitted by the alleged father,
5. Missing Information – If a vital piece of information was not taken at sample collection, it will have to be retrieved before results can be released. The lab makes every effort to obtain this information prior to results being complete.
The lab assumes that the alleged fathers are unrelated men. Clients must notify the lab in advance if the possible fathers are related (i.e. brothers, father and son, etc). In such cases, additional testing will likely be required.
The lab only releases conclusive paternity results. We know our clients depend on us to give them accurate, reliable results. These tests can change our clients’ lives, and we take that very seriously. We will only release our results when we are absolutely confident they are accurate.
Interpreting Results – Once you have your results, the following explanation can be helpful in explaining the meaning of the data.
Interpretation Section – The DNA paternity results are summarized in the report’s Interpretation section. The results are explained in one of two ways:
1. The alleged father is excluded as being the biological father of the child
2. The alleged father cannot be excluded as being the biological father of the child, and the probability of paternity is > 99.0%
Results Section – The « numbers » section of the report reveals the DNA patterns of the individuals tested. People have two genetic markers, or numbers, for each DNA system analyzed. One genetic marker was inherited from the mother, and the other genetic marker was inherited from the father. The order in which the genetic markers appear is insignificant. If the combined paternity index is a non-zero number, there is a « match » between the alleged father and child. If the combined paternity index is a zero, it is a « non-match » between the alleged father and child. A zero means that the alleged father is excluded as being the biological father of the child. A non-zero number means that the probability of paternity is over 99%.
Receiving Your Results – You have several options for receiving your results, which are listed on the Authorization form you completed at sample collection. If you submitted an email address at sample collection, you will receive your confidential ID and password as soon as the samples have been received.
Changing Contact Information – It is important to submit the correct information at the time your samples are collected. In order to protect your confidentiality you may only change your contact information (i.e. mailing address, email address, phone or fax number, etc.) in writing and with proof of your identity.
Questions? If you have any questions about your test, please call toll free 1-888-875-7574.